There are many uses for the comfrey plant on the homestead. Known for its ability to help wounds to heal, it also has many benefits for the garden as well.
Comfrey is an easy to grow perennial. Once you have it established on your property it will come back year after year. If you have a garden area, you should plant a comfrey plant on the outskirts of your main growing area, although you’ll want to contain its roots if space is at a premium. Comfrey has a special corner near my garden and every year I discover more about its special qualities.
In spring of 2018, after the snow melted, and I could open my garden gate again, I thought I was going to lose my entire apple orchard. Out of 25 trees, every one had severe bark damage from voles. Every. Single. One.
The very young trees I had planted the spring before had to be ripped out completely. My cherry bushes (30 in all) were just lose sticks in the ground. Tops and roots were completely gone. Most of the apple trees had been completely ringed by orchard mice, aka voles.
But my heart broke when I saw that my favorite heritage tree, the Duchess of Oldenburg apple, planted in 2003, had sustained deep and severe bark injury. From the lower branches to the ground there was hardly any bark left. The tree sent out some leaf buds in spite of the damage, but within a week the leaf tips blackened and died.
I was ready to give up and dig it out. I took photos and posted them in a homestead Facebook group. Most people agreed with me that it was hopeless. But one gal suggested trying comfrey. Yeah, that comfrey that healed my lamb’s broken leg a few years back.
My comfrey leaves were just tips poking out of the ground when I first noticed the damaged trees. But within 2 weeks we had some real leaves to pinch and use. I took a few leaves and rubbed the naked trunk of the tree not really expecting much. I went out a couple days later and did it again, smearing the naked trunk with green, gooey comfrey juice.
Once the comfrey was growing vigorously, I grabbed more leaves and made a “comfrey poultice” completely around the trunk. And the tree revived. It produced leaves, blossoms, and then fruited. We mulched the tree with comfrey and continued to add comfrey to the area around the trunk all summer long. The fruit ripened on schedule.
A younger apple tree also received comfrey poultices around the bark, and it too recovered and produced leaves but a month later than expected. My crab apple trees also received the comfrey treatment although none of those were completely ringed.
We lost 5 apple trees that were new plantings that had completely lost their roots to the orchard mice. But the trees that remained rooted were able to be revived with comfrey. The allantoin in comfrey leaves is a proven healer that encourages cell proliferation. While I knew about comfrey’s reputation as a skin healer and a healer of broken bones, repairing bark damage and reviving orchard trees was an exciting discovery.
Which Comfrey Plant to Choose
“Bocking 14”, a variety of comfrey that is less invasive ( it is a sterile cultivar and doesn’t produce seeds), and is specially selected for medicinal potency without the alkaloids which have given comfrey a bad rap in the past. Bocking 14 is high in allantoin, the cell proliferating agent that helps with healing.
Choose the best varieties of Bocking 14 or Bocking 4 which is low in pyrrolizidine alkaloids but high in allantoin, a hormone-like substance that stimulates cell division, making it valuable for healing wounds, ulcers, and broken bones. This cultivar shows good resistance to rust, a fungus disease common to comfrey.
Comfrey Growing Conditions (Symphytum × uplandicum)
- Grows up to 4 feet tall with a spread of 3 feet.
- Plant on 2-foot centers.
- USDA Zone 3-9
- Perennial, drought resistant
- Full sun to part shade
- Plant in an area that will not be disturbed. It spreads and can become invasive when the roots are cut into pieces during tilling. This is less of a problem with the Bocking 14 variety.
1. Compost Accelerator
Comfrey is also a compost stimulator. Because comfrey cuttings are high in nitrogen, they make an excellent activator in the compost bin. We use ours as a layering inside of the compost bins. Adding comfrey leaves to compost helps even out the influx of large amounts of fall leaves to be composted and is an efficient way to jumpstart decomposition and balance out the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio with materials we already have on hand.
2. Compost Tea
One of the strengths of comfrey is the ability of its deep roots to bring up nutrients and minerals from the soil and concentrate them in its leaves. When the leaves are steeped in water, the nutrients leach out into the water and make a natural, inexpensive homemade comfrey compost tea for your garden.
3. Comfrey Leaves as Foliar Feed
Once you have steeped comfrey leaves on water and created compost tea you can dilute it and use it as a foliar spray. Dilute it with one part comfrey to fifteen parts water. This feeding gives plants a needed boost.
In his article, Foliar Fertilization Improves Nutrient Use Efficiency, Robert C. Dixon writes that:
Research has shattered the belief that only roots absorb nutrients. The use of radioactive and isotopically tagged nutrients has confirmed that plants can be fed through their leaves. Foliar N, in particular, is absorbed through other green tissue and soft woody tissue including stems, buds, blossoms, and fruit.
4. Use Comfrey Leaves as Fertilizer
Use the first cutting of spring leaves by chopping them up and placing them in the soil next to your garden plants. The leaves are high in potassium and make excellent fertilizer. Allow the leaves to wilt for a few hours after cutting, and then dig them into the soil to a depth of 1 to 2 inch.
Comfrey leaves compare well to composted steer manure with Nitrogen at 1.8, Phosphorous at 5.0, and Potassium at 5.3. If you have large amounts of comfrey and large leaves, you can layer them over garden beds and use them as mulch.
5. Cut and Come Again Mulch
Comfrey is a prolific producer of leaves. The leaves make a superb mulch increasing soil fertility while adding nutrients to plants right in their root zone where they can do the most benefit. I use comfrey as a garden mulch throughout the growing season. In areas with a long growing season, it’s possible to get 4 cuttings from comfrey for fertilizer and garden mulch.
6. Medicine for Fruit Tree Repair
Comfrey supports tree regrowth after bark damage. I would have lost hundreds of dollars worth of orchard trees but comfrey healed the trees and enabled them to continue to grow in-spite of orchard mice damage that ringed the bark of the trees.
7. Reduce transplant shock
Put comfrey leaves in the hole when you transplant trees, shrubs, or herbs. Comfrey will decompose quickly adding potassium, nitrogen, and trace nutrients that the plant can use as it is becoming established.
8. Use Comfrey for Bumble Bee Food
Attract pollinators to your garden. The flowers of the comfrey plant are bell-shaped and purple in color. The nectar is savored by pollinators and beneficial insects in the garden. Bumblebees especially vibrate comfrey flowers to obtain the healing pollen and self medicate with it.
As you are planning your perennial gardens, remember to plant bee-friendly plants for overall pollination and biodiversity. In addition to comfrey, consider planting echinacea, oregano, lavender, mint, lemon balm, and many other medicinal herbs that are beneficial to both you and the bees. It’s a win-win when you plant for the bees.
9. Use to break up hard soil
Plant comfrey in areas that have poor soil, the plant has amazing roots that go down 8 feet or more. They will not only break up the compacted soil but also give the soil a need boost of N-P-K. Read this article in Permaculture News for an amazing study about the benefits of applying comfrey plant to the soil in troubled areas of your property.
Try one of these 9 Ways to make topsoil organically. Comfrey is a key player.
10. Animal Fodder
The leaves of comfrey contain from 20 to 30% protein and chickens benefit from having it in their diet. It is well-suited for their digestive systems since they are not equipped to handle much fiber, and comfrey is low in fiber but high in protein and minerals.
If you have planted the high-yielding Bocking 14 strain of comfrey as recommended, 30 plants will give you enough comfrey to feed 12 birds their entire amount of green plant matter for the year.
11. Comfrey is an Excellent Producer of Biomass
Because the comfrey plant grows rapidly after each harvest, it makes an excellent source for biomass, producing from 100 to 120 tons per acre. In our gardens, we have Comfrey ‘Bocking 14’ located next to each fruit tree in order to have a renewable source of mulch just where we need it.
Many researchers are exploring the ways that plant materials like comfrey, and homestead animal waste can be used as a source of fuel.
12. Comfrey Gardener Salve
Making homemade salves is a good way to tap into the benefits of the herbs you have growing in your own back yard. Salves deliver the medicinal actions of herbs directly to the body via the skin. Comfrey salves are often used for skin conditions, bruising, dryness, rashes, boils, and abrasions.
Regular hand lotion isn’t enough for those cracked, painful cuticles and the gritty, inflamed knuckles that ensue after a day in the garden. Find out how to make a salve for gardening hands in this article from Joybilee Farm.
How to Dry Comfrey
Comfrey leaves are succulent and difficult to dry at normal room temperatures. You can chop the leaves and dry in a dehydrator on low heat or in a warm oven. Once they are fully dry use them to make this skin healing and pain relieving salve.
Long term internal use is discouraged due to the potential of toxic alkaloids. Short term use and external use do not carry significant risk. Potentially genotoxic with long term, high dose ingestion of leaves. Risk can be minimized by planting varieties that are low in pyrrolizidine alkaloids such as “Bocking 14”. Limit internal use to 2 to 3 weeks at a time, except in the case of broken bones. For broken bones, a poultice of comfrey leaves is also effective.
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